Dahilik nedir? Nasil calisilmali? Herkes piyanist olabilir mi ve ya fizik profesoru? Cevaplar evet ama yol zor ve uzun. Kitap yolu anlatiyor cok umut verici. Readers also enjoyed. Self Help. About K. Anders Ericsson born is a Swedish psychologist and Conradi Eminent Scholar and Professor of Psychology at Florida State University who is internationally recognized as a researcher in the psychological nature of expertise and human performance. Currently, Ericsson studies expert performance in domains such as medicine, music, chess, and sports, focusing exclusively on extended deliberate K.
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Quotes from Direto ao Ponto Oh, and figure out a way to maintain your motivation. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Leadership and Ma More important was the importation of Brazilian sugar to northern Spain. Noticia do Brasil 2 vols. For the general organization of Portugal and Brazil under the Hapsburgs there are summaries presented in Lobo , Maria Eulalia Lahmeyer , O processo administrativo ibero-americano Rio de Janeiro , ; and Historia administrativa do Brasil , 5 vols.
There is no doubt that the Spanish Crown disliked the presence of Portuguese New Christians in Spanish America, but there is no proof that the investigations of the Holy Office in Brazil were due to Spanish prompting.
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Resident prelates had exercised inquisitorial powers in the colony and continued to do so after The failure to establish a permanent board of the Inquisition in Brazil seems to lie in the reluctance of the Portuguese Inquisition to assume the financial burden. Benguella was separated from Angola in See Albuquerque Felner, Angola, passim. Carcamo, however, never assumed his post because of ill-health. This number does not reflect the considerable numbers of Negroes that arrived illegally from Africa or Brazil.
Actual figures on the number of slaves arriving in Brazil and the Spanish Indies during the union are not available and there is considerable controversy on the existing data. This is one of the most important articles on the African colonies under the Hapsburgs to have appeared. Rodney argues convincingly that the union with Spain enabled Portugal to establish dominance on the African coast. English Privateering during the Spanish War — , Cambridge , The appendix to this book is a careful table of the shipping taken in the war.
For Portuguese complaints see Livro primeiro , pp. Ill Coloquio international de estudos luso-brasileiros Lisbon , , II , — Rio de Janeiro , points out the strategie factors. See the summary in Boxer , C. These are indications that Brazil was being integrated into the Spanish defensive structure.
This document has interesting implications for the controversy on the feudal nature of the captaincy system in Brazil. Ptolemy addresses the signs from the perspective of their relation to the season of the year; Ragel focuses mainly on their relation with the four elements the other attributes appear scattered along his book. Zacuto synthesizes both contributions, relating each sign with an element which in its turn is composed by two qualities and with a motion moveable, fixed or common.
Ptolemy calls equinoctial to Aries and Libra, and solstitial to Cancer and Capricorn; Zacuto uses the term moveable Ragel connects the signs to the elements and omits this point. But in spite of the different designations, they both relate the signs to the beginning of the four seasons. The fixed signs mark the middle of the season, when the weather has stabilized in the typical conditions of that particular time of year. The common or double-bodied signs sometimes also called bi-corporeal or mutable represent the time when the seasons change; they are double because the weather has both the characteristics of the current season and of the one to come.
Each sign is also associated with an element, and always in the same order: To the first sign is attributed fire, to the next earth, then air, then water, and so on. Thus, the first sign, Aries, belongs to the fire element; followed by Taurus, related to earth, Gemini to the air, Cancer to water and so on.
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The planets were not all equally powerful in all the twelve signs. The power of each planet in a given sign was determined by a system of planetary dignities or strengths. This system had been developed throughout the centuries and becoming increasingly more complex. In the medieval period there were five types of planetary dignity that is, five different ways for a planet to attain power: It is common to find tables of the dignities in astrological books. For instance, Zacuto mentions exaltations and rulerships The astrological houses98 Like the Zodiac, also local space is divided in twelve parts, called the houses This division takes as reference four points: East, were the celestial bodies rise, South, where they culminate that is, were they reach the highest altitude in relation to the horizon , West, where they set, and North, were they reach their lowest point below the horizon.
These points divide the sky in four areas or quadrants , which in turn are divided into three parts each beginning, middle and end , thus obtaining the twelve houses. His house has a set of attributes related to an area or activity, or an aspect of life. Ali ben Ragel; 11th century Abraham Zacuto; 16th century pp. Already in antiquity there was an in-going discussion about whether the better system, and eventually, unequal house systems were developed.
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Ptolemy is very sparse in his descriptions, whilst the later authors offer a more detailed explanation. Also, the names he attributes to the houses clearly have a pagan origin, which obviously does not appear in the later works. Their attributions derive from earlier authors, other than Ptolemy. For instance, if Mars, the planet of the battles, was placed in the 11th house, it would imply that the adventures, recognition and good fame represented by that house, would be obtained through martial activities, like battles and war.
The astrological chart For practical purposes, the astrologer annotated the positions of the planets their placement in a sign and a house , in a diagram called astrological chart or figure. This was a map of the planetary positions, a sort of celestial equivalent to a geographical map.
It is generally a squared figure, divided in twelve parts, representing the twelve houses. In each space, or house, is annotated the degree of the sign occupying the house. If any planets are placed in the house, they are represented by their glyph, along with the zodiacal degree in which they are positioned.
These charts would serve any of the four branches of astrology: Astrological rules The combination of these three referentials — planets, signs and houses — according to certain rules, provides the astrological interpretation. These rules developed throughout the ages, from the simplicity of direct observation, to the complexity of a personal horoscope, as in the medieval period. It is worth noting that the planetary positions and their interrelation were not the only factors to take in account: It was also a demanding one, as the requests for astrological advice included a wide range of topics, from personal health to politics, from meteorology which included agriculture and economy to diplomacy and war.
The medieval court astrologers were the natural heirs of ancient traditions from the Middle East the Chaldeans, the Persians, the Jews and the Arabs.
The Iberian Peninsula the Arabic al- Andalus was particularly active in terms of cultural transfers. Astrology was one of the disciples that benefited the most from it, both in the technical and the philosophical aspects. Astrology brought profuse rewards to its practitioners, both in the material and in the social aspects.
Their services were generously paid by their noble patrons, and their social status also improved. Some Portuguese court astrologers even received the equivalent to a nobility title, with the honors and the lands that come with it. In the Portuguese court, astrology was often associated with other correlate activities: Astrology was frequently associated with the medical practice, and most astrologers were also physicians. Jews and converts had a key position in these processes, since their multilingualism made them first-class translators.
Essential to the medical practice was the theory of the four elements, and their correspondent temperaments.
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According to it, everything in the Cosmos — objects, plants, animals and Man — had a unique combination of these elements, which in the case of Man was represented in the astrological chart. To accomplish this, there was an extensive system of correlations between signs and planets with parts of the body and with specific illnesses.
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The zodiacal or melothesic man is probably the most recognizable of these correspondence systems. In this system the signs where related to specific areas of the body, in general terms: They establish a correlation between the signs and parts of the bodies, they serve various medical purposes, namely the choice of favorable moments for medical interventions surgery, bleeding, etc. This was determined mainly by the passage of the Moon trough the signs, because it was believed that this passage would induce the affluence of blood to the correspondent body part.
Zacuto says, quoting Ptolemy: Also, the position of the Moon in certain signs could favor the elimination of specific undesired humors: This passage reveals the complexity of the astrological medicine: For example, cholera, a hot and dry humour with an affinity with the element fire, was purged when the Moon was in one of the three fire signs Aries, Leo and Sagittarius.
The same principle is applied to the other three humours. The complexity of the system goes even further, as there are exceptions to be taken into account. For instance, the Moon in Capricorn a sign of the element Earth should not be selected to treat the corresponding element melancholy. This is probably because in the astrological system of planetary strength, the Moon in Capricorn is considered to be weak.
Another example of this complexity is evident when Zacuto relates the position of the Moon with that of other planets. In medieval astrology there are five aspects: Trines and sextiles are considered to provide beneficial relations between the planets; squares and oppositions are harmful. The effects of the conjunctions also vary according to the two planets involved.
The astrological interpretation combines the aspect and the natures of the planets. New Moon conjunction and Full Moon opposition , which are considered harmful to the medical practice. Through these factors, the physician determined the condition of the patient, the development of the disease and the best time to apply the remedies.
The natal chart was a diagnostic tool, along with the standard physical assessment.
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It revealed the forces and weaknesses of the individual — the diseases he would be prone to due to his temperament. The interrogations would also be used to scrutinize the origins and development of a disease, as well as the possibilities of cure.